那么多主义

靖博 阅读:778 2018-01-15 15:37:23 评论:1

最近读的书和资料,大都是宏大的主题,涉及人类历史与命运,自己看着都觉得沉重:) 有很多主义,很多-ologies和-isms,看得头晕。

政治主张大体可以粗略分为Left和Right两大派,但在西方政治学和中国特色的政治学体系中左和右的含义不同。为安全起见,本文不谈中国,只谈西方主流政治学体系中的左翼(left wing)和右翼(right wing)。

用最简单的标准和划分,左与右的根本特征如下(www.diffen.com):

The fundamental differences between left-wing and right-wing ideologies center around the rights of individuals vs. the power of the government.

左翼与右翼主张的最基本的意见分歧在于对个人权利和政府权力的看法。

Left-wing beliefs are liberal in that they believe society is best served with an expanded role for the government.

左翼思想认为政府在社会结构中应扮演最大的角色。

People on the right believe that the best outcome for society is achieved when individual rights and civil liberties are paramount and the role — and especially the power — of the government is minimized.

右翼思想认为政府权力应限制在最低限,个人权利和公民自由更重要。

再进一步说明:

Left wing generally refers to more "liberal" or "progressive" views (as in wanting to change things in ways that have not been tried before).

左翼一般持“自由”或“进步”主张(希望改变现状)。

Right wing usually refers to more "conservative" or "regressive" views (as in wanting things to stay the same or return to how they used to be).

右翼一般持“保守”或“后退”主张(希望保持现状或回归传统)。

今天所谓的“左”和“右”最早都起源于法国大革命时期(1789年)国民议会上的座位。当时坐在左边一侧的议会代表和坐在右边一侧的议会代表意见对立,由此得名。

下面这两段话更进一步加以说明了两者主要分野。

Left wing beliefs are usually progressive in nature, they look to the future, aim to support those WHO cannot support themselves, are idealist and believe in equality. People who are left wing believe in taxation to redistribute opportunity and wealth - things like a national health service, and job seeker’s allowance are fundamentally left wing ideas. They believe in equality over the freedom to fail.

Right wing beliefs value tradition, they are about equity, survival of the fittest, and they believe in economic freedom. They typically believe that business shouldn’t be regulated, and that we should all look after ourselves. Right wing people tend believe they shouldn’t have to pay for someone else’s education or health service. They believe in freedom to succeed over equality.

(上图采自:https://www.theobjectivestandard.com/2012/06/political-left-and-right-properly-defined/)

也许你也会像我一样想——川普是左翼还是右翼?

好问题!

川普,in my view,首先是一个nativist(反移民主义者)和White supremacist(白人至上主义者)。在他的政治主张清晰化之前(I am talking about now),他无疑是左翼的,他的“重新振兴美国”的口号背后是穿着极左外衣的极右隐秘心理。但他的行为方式又无疑是social Darwinism(社会达尔文主义)的,从每天的川普关联报道来看,此公是丛林法则的坚实拥趸。川总又是主张regressive的,不认为美国世界和盟友附有额外的义务。这个角度而言,其又是极右的。

这位左右摇摆不定的大爷让美国媒体和人民操碎了心,咬碎了牙。实乱世之奸雄也。

参考阅读

(Declanhill.com) Donald Trump is the Most Left-Wing President America Has Ever Had(链接略)

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